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Oil Asphalt

1. The definition of
English name: Petroleum asphalt
Asphalt is a crude oil processing of a product, at room temperature is black or dark brown viscous liquid, semi-solid or solid, mainly containing soluble Trichlorethylene hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon derivatives, the nature of and composition as the source of crude oil and production methods vary.


2. Product Performance
Asphalt is the residue after the distillation of crude oil. According to the different levels of refinement, at room temperature into a liquid, semi-solid or solid. Petroleum pitch black and shiny, with a higher temperature susceptibility.
Of petroleum pitch can be classified according to the following system:
Divided according to production methods: straight-run asphalt, solvent oil from bitumen, oxidized asphalt, blending asphalt, emulsified asphalt, modified asphalt, etc.;
Divided by the appearance of the form: liquid asphalt, solid bitumen, diluting fluid, emulsion, body modification, etc.;
By end-use are: road asphalt, construction of asphalt, asphalt waterproof moisture in order to use or function of a variety of special names, such as asphalt.


3. Production methods 
(1) distillation: is the distillation of crude oil often separation pressure gasoline, kerosene, light diesel oil distillates, and then by vacuum distillation (residual pressure 10 ~ 100mmHg) Vacuum distillate separation, the residue remaining in line with the road asphalt specifications can be directly produced asphalt products, from asphalt, also known as straight-run asphalt, asphalt road is the main production methods.
(2) solvent precipitation method: non-polar solvents on the low-molecular-weight alkanes in the vacuum residue of each component with different solubility, solubility differences between the use of separation can be achieved, which can be removed from the vacuum residue of the nature of the negative component of asphalt to produce asphalt in line with the specifications of products, this is the solvent precipitation method.
(3) oxidation method: in a range of high temperature to the vacuum residue oil asphalt or blown off the air, it changes the composition and performance, as the oxidation products derived from asphalt. Vacuum residue at high temperature and under air blowing will have vaporized evaporation will occur at the same time dehydrogenation, oxidation, a series of condensation polymerization reaction. This is a multi-component interaction of the very complex process of comprehensive response, not just the occurrence of oxidation reaction, but the customary law known as oxidation and oxidation of bitumen, also known as air-blowing and air blowing of asphalt.
(4) transfer legal: the legitimate transfer of asphalt production of crude oil by the same means the first pitch of the 4 components constitute the quality requirements in accordance with the proportion of re-blending, referred to as synthetic products derived from reconstruction of asphalt or asphalt. With the development of process technology, the sources of blending components increased. For example, crude oil from the same or a different crude oil, residue or secondary processing, as well as a variety of industrial components such as waste oil blending components, which reduces the production of asphalt oil-dependent selection. As appropriate to create a growing shortage of crude bitumen, the legal transfer shows the flexibility and economy are more and more attention and widespread application.
(5) emulsification method: asphalt and the surface tension of water vary greatly, at room temperature or high temperature will not be miscible with each other. But when the asphalt by high-speed centrifugal, shear, such as mechanical action from the hit, making it 0.1 ~ 5m particle size of the particles, and dispersed with surfactant (emulsifier - stabilizer) in water medium, as a result of emulsifier can be directed particles adsorbed on the surface of asphalt, water and thereby reducing the interfacial tension of the asphalt, so asphalt particles in water can form a stable dispersion, which is the oil-in-water emulsion. This decentralized system was dark brown, asphalt for the dispersed phase, water as continuous phase, at room temperature with good mobility. In a sense is a water emulsified asphalt to "dilution" of asphalt, thus improving the liquidity of the asphalt. 
(6) Modified Asphalt: modern highways and roads many changes occurred: the frequency of traffic flow and the rapid growth of traffic, axle load freight cars increasing, the widespread use of sub-lane one-way traffic, it is requested to further enhance the mobility of surface resistance, that is, high temperature the ability of anti-rutting; improve the flexibility and elasticity, that is, low temperature cracking resistance capacity; increase the capacity and extend wear life. Commonly used in modern buildings in large-span prestressed roof requiring roofing materials adapt to the larger displacement, more tolerance to the harsh climatic conditions of high and low temperature, durability and better, there are self-adhesive, to facilitate construction and reduce maintenance workload. The use of the environment of these changes occurred in the performance of petroleum asphalt posed a severe challenge.  Modified asphalt oil to meet the demanding requirements of the above, attracted attention.  After decades of research and development has resulted in a wide variety of modified road bitumen, waterproofing membranes and coatings, the works show some practical results.  However, in view of the modified material prices are high than that of ordinary oil asphalt 2 to 7 times, the user works on the material properties have not been able to take full advantage of, the slow growth of modified asphalt production. Modified asphalt road is currently used mainly for airport runway, bridge deck waterproofing, parking lots, playgrounds, heavy traffic road and the road intersection corner of the pavement, such as applications for special occasions. Europe has recently modified asphalt is applied to the highway network conservation and reinforcement, the larger the road to promote the modification of the universal application of asphalt. Modified bitumen membrane and coating of buildings used mainly for high-grade waterproofing.  With the scientific and technological progress and the development of economic construction, will further promote the development of modified asphalt varieties and production technology development.  Modified asphalt preparation technology depends on the species and the type of modifier, adding volume and matrix asphalt (ie, raw materials of asphalt) and the nature of the composition. Modifier as a result of a variety of different forms, in order to bring them in line with the formation of petroleum pitch homogeneous materials useful for the project over the years various types of modifiers evaluated, and developed the corresponding formulation and preparation method, but most has been modified asphalt works are practical patented technologies and patented products.


4. The main purpose 
Mainly used as a basis for building materials, raw materials and fuel, the scope of application, such as transport (road, rail, aviation, etc.), construction, agriculture, water conservancy projects, industry (mining, manufacturing), and other civilian departments.


5. Packaging and storage
Asphalt in the production and use of the process may require insulation in the tank within the storage, if not handled properly, asphalt can be re-heated at a higher temperature can be maintained for a long time without serious damage to properties. However, if exposure to oxygen, light and overheating will cause the hardening of asphalt, most notably marked by the softening point of asphalt increased penetration decline, deterioration of ductility, so that the use of asphalt by the loss of performance

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